2 JUNE: born Bristol, 78 Whiteladies Road named after an uncle and at an early age inherits Uncle Hubert’s nickname of ‘Nibs’. His father Cyril, served in the First World War and suffers from ill health after being gassed in the trenches. Cyril is a commercial traveller and his mother Edith (nee Mitchell) works for her family and confectionery business. His brother Peter is four years older than him and later he has a sister Mary, four years younger. The family live in a suburban, lower middle class area of 1930’s detached houses. Dalwood is educated at Grammar School. Though often excelling in art, the idea of becoming an artist was not considered possible within his social environment.
Apprenticed to Bristol Aviation Co., where he works alongside Reyner Banham, the future design historian. Dalwood is reserved from active service until his twenty-first birthday, frustrating his desire to join the navy. He works primarily in the experimental drawing office, but is released to various other departments at different locations including the Experimental Engine Research Test Foundry and with Vickers Armstrong at lands Race Track in Surrey. He works on the development of the Warwick aircraft.
Under the Day Release scheme for under 18s he is supposed to spend one’ day a week in firm’s technical school but instead goes unofficially the West of England College of Art, where he has friends. There he draws and sculpts (carving and modelling) until, he would recount, he is expelled for being a bad influence on account of the obscene and erotic nature of his sculpture. While there he appears in a performance of T S. Eliot’s . Agonistes; such modernist literature is to remain an abiding -interest.
Dalwood reports that he is officially spending one day a week at the West of England (of Art where he does ‘outdoor architectural sketching in the morning and commercial advertising in the afternoon’ [letter to Peter Dalwood, 1943]. That he has not decided upon a career is demonstrated by the fact that in April he is thinking of going into ‘commercial advertising for engineering firms’ [ibid], but a month later determines that, having realised that ‘only those things that are indestructible are really valuable’, he wants to be a farmer, one of the attractions of which includes ‘the sense of accomplishment which the Bible infers God felt on the Seventh day’ [letter to Peter Dalwood, 12 May 1943]. He joins the Home Guard.
Dalwood writes of his depression at ‘the general pointlessness of things … I find it so difficult to find a coherent plan for living’ and shows a curiosity for different religions [letter to Peter Dalwood, 3 May 1944]. He is sketching and painting and has read Herbert Read’s An Now (1933).
JULY; volunteers in Bristol for the Merchant Navy, following the bombing of the air-raid shelter next to the one in which he was sheltering, but does not expect release before Christmas. SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER: starts stone-carving. JANUARY: establishes a studio with three young men from the art school in a large former ‘stable of a Georgian house, off Great George Street, Bristol with a floor above which we have done up, put stoves and furniture in and work in over weekends and other times, and also use as a meeting place’. With a group of writers they form Writers and Artists Association, which is reported in the Evening World with a photograph of Dalwood carving. He disparages his colleagues as ‘all arrant communists with an intensely materialistic outlook, and narrow minded and politically stupid as most communists (or inverted Nazis!)’ [letter to Peter Dalwood, n.d.]. After the war he plans to ‘tramp’ round Europe with his brother. He develops a strong love of the English countryside. He is still interested in farming, but does not ‘know how important art will become to me, I don’t know that the desire (“having to” would be better) to create with paint and stone will not become so strong that I shall have to forgo the pleasure of actual participation in farming’. He is writing ‘prose with rhythm’ and reports his philosophy of life: ‘I believe in an irresolvable quantity call it what you will, The Absolute, Life Force, God, god’ [Letter to Peter Dalwood, Jan. 1945]. MAY: Dalwood joins Royal Navy, Chatham as Engine Room Artificer in time to visit London for VE. Day Serves in the Far East (Singapore and Malaysia) on small boats.
SEPTEMBER: he leaves the navy and forges his own Trade Certificate. With ex-serviceman’s grant he is among the first year of intakes to the new Bath Academy of Art Corsham Court in Wiltshire where he is register for the NDD (National Diploma for Design). There the head of painting, William Scott, and, especially, Kenneth Armitage, head of sculpture are important influences. Already determined to a sculptor, Dalwood learns carving and modeling though Armitage does not attempt to influence direction and treats him more as a colleague.
SUM M E R: he makes the first of many visits (excepting childhood holidays) to St Ives, Cornwall which is rapidly establishing itself as a major centre of modernist art. He learns from mixing with professional artists.
JULY: Dalwood travels with a friend to Sremska Mitrovica, Yugoslavia as part of an English brigade helping to build an autostrada from Belgrade to Zagreb as part of Tito’s Five Year Plan. He is said to have been more interested in the Croatian sculptor Ivan Mestrovic than in politics and conversations with Yugoslavs confirm his skepticism towards communism.
SUMMER: he again stays in St Ives, where Sven Berlin allows him to work in a corner of his studic on a later visit he works in Denis Mitchell’s attic workshop. He produces about half a dozen stone carvings, but is disappointed when Clifford Ellis, principal at Corsham, is dismissive, though Dalwood later recognises them as overly derivative from Henry Moore. Apparently leaves Corsham at the end of the year. He later recalls that his degree show consisted of ‘a mixture of bits of Henry Moore, or bits of formalism, and things more directly experienced from the model’ [interview with John Jones, 1967]. He returns to live with his parents in Bristol and works in a small room above his brother’s bookshop] at Christmas Steps. His sculpture at this time is made up mostly of terracotta figures. Teaches one day-a-week at a local domestic science college. JUNE: having called into the Gimpel Fils gallery in London unsolicited, a work is included in their summer exhibition.
MAY: applies for British Council scholarship with a reference from Gimpel Fils. SUMMER: returns to St Ives with his friend John Jones; the work in a local hotel and in September. Dalwood works as an assistant to Barbara Hepworth. Sven Berlin recalls: ‘Barbara wanted a Hand she had carved in stone (clenched fist) cast in plaster & no one could do it – even she. I suggested Dalwood … and he went in and did the job’ ['Notes on Hubert Dalwood', MS sent to the author, 21 Feb. 1998]. Dalwood writes to Jones: ’I have done the most beautiful piece of virtuoso casting, quite exquisite. Barbara is extremely pleased’ [postmarked 21.9.50]. He meets the poet W. S. Graham and visits Newlyn with Berlin where he meets John Wells and plans a trip to the Scilly Isles with him.
OCTOBER: travels to Italy with an Italian government scholarship to work in a bronze foundry in Milan and to study Etruscan sculpture (he has no particular interest in the latter). At the foundry he chases casts of Boccioni’s Development of a Bottle Space (1912) and Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (191’3′V and works on pieces by Giacomo Manzu and Marino Marini, whom he gets to know. Also encounters the work of painters, including Massimo Campigli.
DECEMBER: Dalwood casts the first bronze of his own sculpture – ‘Three figures about 20 ins high’ [letter to Peter Dalwood, n.d.]. Though he had planned to leave Milan in December to travel slowly to Sicily, he is still there at the end of the year, perhaps because he met a leading architect with whom he discusses a possible commission. Meets Peggy Guggenheim, who extends a standing invitation to her palazzo in Venice.
JANUARY: Dalwood arrives in Palermo, where he teaches English, and travels around Sicily. He meets the linguist, Mary Nicolson. He visits the ancient Greek temples of Segesta and Agrigento. He has a studio in a ceramics workshop and reports that his sculpture has become more naturalistic [letter to Peter Dalwood]. Gimpel Fils want to show the work he has made in Italy. He plans to leave Sicily in April to return slowly to Milan, ‘to get the foundry business off pat, also to try and get some things cast in bronze for the exhibition at Gimpels’, and then spend the summer in England and return to Milan to fulfill the commission. He applies from Italy for teaching posts at Bath, Exeter and (successfully) Newport.
He refuses a three month teaching contract in Palermo and returns to Milan via Naples and Pompeii, Rome, Florence and Tuscany and Bologna. He returns to Britain via Paris, where he visits Constantin Brancusi, spending a morning in his studio. MAY: moves to Newport – lives at 73 Caernau Road. He later establishes a studio in a monumental mason’s yard in the same street. He establishes a viable sculpture department at Newport School of Art, his arrival attracting new students.
Early in the year, Dalwood writes to Mary Nicolson, asking her if she would like to meet now that she has returned to England. They are married in London on 15 December. Mary studied at University College London and was a language scholar with wide interests in literature and politics. It is later said that Mary gave Nibs his university education.
JANUARY: included in Young Sculptors exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts. He is invited to show by Lawrence Alloway but the exhibition is selected by David Sylvester. The group of sculptors shown at the Venice Biennale in May and dubbed ‘the geometry of fear’ by Herbert Read are drawn from this show but Dalwood is not among them. He makes pots at a friend’s pottery (Peter Draper) in Brixham. 4 JULY: birth of first daughter, Katherine Julia Mary. The University of California consider employing Dalwood from September 1953, but the plan is ‘quiescent’ by spring 1953. SEPTEMBER: he finishes Leaning Figure, which he submit^ to the Unknown Political Prisoner competition at the last minute; he is not included in the selection of British entries shown at the New Burlington Galleries in January 1953. OCTOBER: Dalwood is invited to meet Herbert Read at the ICA after Read is impressed by photographs of his Leaning Figure. Late in the year the sculptor reports a possible commission for an old people’s home in Wales, but this has fallen through by spring 1953.
LATE I952/EARLY I953: Dalwood applies for scholarship to America, expecting to find work there. MARCH: he visits London to see final Unknown Political Prisoner exhibition at Tate Gallery. MAY: as he now has five NDD sculpture students and two NDD mosaicists Dalwood is hoping to get a full lectureship at Newport, even though he is lonely there. Reports that he is ‘making (by my own wonderful process) moulded wood dishes beautifully designed and painted’ [letter to John Jones]. AUGUST: family holiday at Herne Bay where his parents-in-law own a small bungalow at 18 Riley Avenue, Herne Bay, then Sydenham where he plans to ‘go over to Corsham and do some bronze casting with Armitage and/or possibly hitch-hike or get a lift. with my people to St Ives, they are going down on ’2 2 August’. (The small foundry at Corsham had been established after Dalwood had left in 1949.) A full lectureship at Newport now seems unlikely. OCTOBER/NOVEMBER: Dalwood writes that he is, ‘fair up to my ears in work … I’m now doing small things in lead’. He has eighteen pieces for an exhibition. 4 DECEMBER: birth of second daughter, Alison, Nicola, Clare.
DECEMBER 1953/JANUARY 1954: Peter Gimpel visits Newport and promises him a one-person exhibition. Dalwood reports that he was ‘told that it only requires six more of his incomparable 3-dimensional spacemen to make a set and get a Dan Dare badge and a surprise pocket of Venusian critics’ [letter to John Jones].
MARCH: the Dalwoods move from Fair Orchard Farm, St Brides, Newport (rented) when they buy 7 Granville Square, Newport. SPRING: Dalwood is preparing work to apply for the Rome Scholarship; he hopes to name Philip James, director of Fine Art at the Arts Council, as a referee. Reports that he is starting a sculpture of a baby and by August is working on a ‘an almost life-size swimming figure’.
JULY: is ‘near desperation to leave Newport’ and is hoping to be living in London by spring 1955.He has applied for a job teaching English in Naples and has the possibility of a scholarship to Spain. AUGUST: his first one-person exhibition at Gimpel Fils is a success: a work is purchased by the Arts Council on the advice of William Coldstream, professor at the Slade School of Art, while the Tate Gallery shows an interest in another. E. C. Gregory, director of the publishers Lund Humphries and a prominent collector, buys a piece. The exhibition is extended to 18 September as it is discussed by Basil Tayler on the Home Service (12 Sept. 1954). At some point during the year Dalwood meets Lilian Somerville, influential Director of Visual Art at the British Council. He reports that on introduction she said: ‘ “Oh, Dalwood I am pleased etc, I only had a letter from Herbert Read the other day in which he recommended me to see a sculpture of yours that Gregory bought etc etc … we will certainly include your work in a foreign tour at the next opportunity”.’ He also says, ‘she has practically promised me a scholarship to Yugoslavia’[letter to John Jones].
JANUARY: Dalwood enquires of Leeds University about the Gregory Fellowship. There is no formal application, nor a fellowship instituted specifically for sculpture. At an Arts Council private view he meets Sir John Rothenstein, Director of the Tate Gallery, and William Coldstream, a Tate trustee. The artist is advised by the British Council to apply for scholarships to Yugoslavia and Spain. MARCH: he has missed the teaching job he hoped for in Naples, but has been offered another else-where in Italy. He is also applying for a lectureship at Manchester Regional College of Art and for a British Council Spanish scholarship. He is still optimistic about the Gregory Fellowship, telling his brother that Gregory owns his work ‘and is a friend of William Coldstream the painter who also thinks I am the best’. His ‘optimum turn-up’ would be the Spanish scholarship for the summer, the Leeds Fellowship1 followed by the Manchester job deferred for a year; failing that he and Mary have the offer of teaching in Italy. END OF MARCH: he is refused the Spanish scholarship, but has lunch with Henry Moore and E. C. Gregory to discuss prospect of Gregory Fellowship APRIL: Dalwood is interviewed for the British Council and is seen by Moore a few weeks later, who is said to have been happy with the interview. JULY: British Council wish to include him in an exhibition of contemporary British sculpture to tour Germany. Alloway asks him to contribute two or three sculptures and some drawings for an ICA sculpture exhibition. University College, Swansea commission a small figure.
27 JULY: interviewed for Gregory Fellowship by E. C. Gregory, Henry Moore, T. S. Eliot, Professor Bonamy Dobree and the Vice Chancellor and Pro Chancellor of Leeds University. He is unanimously appointed and moves to Leeds in October. The Gregory Fellowships for painters, sculptors, writers, poets and musicians were established by E. C. Gregory at the University of Leeds in 1950. The aim was ‘to bring younger artists into close touch with the youth of the country so that they may influence it; and, at the same time, to keep artists in close touch with the needs of the community’. In practice there were generally three fellowships, in painting, sculpture and poetry. Fellows were generally appointed for one year, usually extended to two and occasionally to three. Dalwood’s family have a flat in a university house, 52 Cottage Road, Headingley, Leeds 6, the painting fellow lives downstairs and the poet down the road in Heathfield Terrace. Both adjoin the grounds of the university’s Tetley Hall. Thomas Blackburn is appointed poetry fellow at the same time, to be succeeded by Jon Silkin in 1958, while Terry Frost has been painting fellow for a year and would be followed by Alan Davie 1957. Dalwood is provided with a studio at 37 University Road. The fellowship is for £600 P.a., for which he is expected to be involved in the life of the university and to make his own work. He is under no obligation to lecture but takes an active role in the university and ‘had a group of eight students practising sculpture in their “free” time’ [Hilary Diaper, 'The Gregory Fellowships' in Benedict Read and David Thistlewood (eds), Herbert Read: A Vision of World Art, Leeds 1993, pp. 136-7]. Dalwood finds congenial company at the university, notably with the professors of history, Asa Briggs, and of philosophy, Alasdair Maclntyre, and makes full use of its facilities. OCTOBER: visits London to see a Germaine Richier exhibition at Hanover Gallery. From 1955 until 1964 Dalwood is a Visitor, and later a Tutor, at the Royal College of Art, London.
Dalwood joins 56 Group of artists associated with Wales (he remains a member until 1970). FEBRUARY: he visits Henry Moore at Much Hadham with a friend, Jan Lynton wife of Norbert Lynton. SPRING: he visits London to see the Barbara Hepworth exhibition at Whiitechapel Art Gallery. Early in the year Dalwood meets Basil Spence, who was then Visiting Professor of architecture at Leeds. Spence visits his studio and is so impressed that he commissions a 10 feet high sculpture of St Catherine for a church in Sheffield (St Catherine’s, Woodthorpe). In April Spence views designs for a John the Baptist. The sculpture, of Crucifixion with St Catherine and 12 feet high, was not completed until 1965. Dalwood speculatively submits a figure of St Michael as a maquette for a large scheme for Coventry Cathedral. The proposal is rejected but Spence buys the figure which stands in a niche in his London home/office, to which Dalwood becomes a frequent visitor. Dalwood’s poor financial situation leads him to consider giving up the Gregory Fellowship. He describes himself as ‘in a bit of a doldrum’. SUMMER: he is discussing possible commissions for Harlow New Town, for the Central Electricity Authority’s new power station at Wakefield and for a school in Shropshire designed by Basil Spence & Partners. None of these are realised. Dalwood teaches on the 3rd North Riding Summer School at Scarborough, run by Harry Thubron. He also starts to teach one day a week at Leeds College of Art. An ex-Newport student Alan Saysell joins him in Leeds as his part-time assistant. OCTOBER: Gregory Fellowship renewed for a further year.
JANUARY: Dalwood delivers drawings for a British Council exhibition in Buenos Aires. He is invited to show in open-air exhibition in Holland Park, London and in a touring Arts Council open-air show. Second one-person exhibition at Gimpel Fils: Tate Gallery considers three works: Crouching Figure, Reclining Figure, Standing Nude but buy none. This show marks the beginning of his departure from figuration and shortly after- wards he begins a series of aluminium reliefs. He has his first works cast in aluminium at the North Road Foundry, Ferrybridge; they are a commercial foundry and he likes the non-art environment. Though there are precedents, he is probably the first British artist to use aluminium at that time and others soon follow. He again visits St Ives.
20 JUNE: Gregory Fellowship extended to 30 September 1958. SEPTEMBER: a formal contract is drawn up with Gimpel Fils. Establishment of first ‘Basic Design’ course at Leeds College of Art. This is led by Harry Thubron, who arrived in Leeds in 1955, with Eric Atkinson and Tom Hudson. Students from the Fine Art, Design and Architecture departments are all required to take the course, which is based on Bauhaus principles, in their first year. It establishes Leeds as a centre for radical art education which spreads nationwide when the concept is adopted by the Summerson Committee. Dalwood is one of several regular part-time teachers on the course and Thubron brings many visitors, such as Patrick Heron and Roger Hilton, to Leeds while other resident contributors include Frost, Davie, Maurice de Sausmarez (Head of Fine Art at the university) and Norbert Lynton, teaching art history. As an off-shoot, Summer Schools are held at a teacher- training college in Barry, Glamorgan for four or five years and Dalwood participates in these too. NOVEMBER: his contribution to the John Moores exhibition in Liverpool – Sunda – is broken. DECEMBER: Dalwood is to be included in Michel Seuphor’s Dictionnaire de la sculpture moderne (Paris 1960, London 1962)
During the year invitations to show in a number of international exhibitions are indications of Dalwood’s growing reputation. He is asked to show in an exhibition of Artist Craftsmen to tour America, to which he proposes to lend ‘a big relief “The Two Trees” (of Knowledge and calvery [sic}) … aluminium 45 x 70″‘, and to another in Belgium. 3-8 MARCH: he sells a number of pieces in a studio exhibition, the reliefs are especially successful. MARCH: James J. Sweeney, director of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, is interested in Dalwood’s work. APRIL: Aldermaston March organised by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Mary is a central figure in the CND movement in Leeds and several of Dalwood’s circle in Leeds are involved in the peace movement and join the demonstration. Though he is sympathetic he isn’t very active. Peter Gimpel sells several works during a trip to America. Herbert Read visits Dalwood’s studio and is very enthusiastic; he especially likes Icon. Charles Gimpel enquires if Dalwood would be interested in commissions for a font and a Hebraic candelabrum. The artist replies that he has already ‘looked into the symbolism of candelabrum for synagogues and it is too limiting to the design – 1 can’t do it’. Visits St Ives until 20 April. 2 8 JUNE: the artist signs a formal contract with Gimpel Fils. JULY: he spends a week in St Ives. AUGUST: Dalwood and family drive to Italy, visiting the Gimpels in Menerbes, Provence on the way. They go via Bergamo and in Tuscany they visit Piacenza, Pisa, Lerici, Lucca, Florence and Volterra.
He lectures at the Cheltenham Festival alongside Victor Pasmore. 1 OCTOBER: Gregory Fellowship extended until 31 December and university agrees to Dalwood teaching four half-days a week at Leeds College of Art, although the normal allowance is only two half-days. He gets a commission for eight relief panels for the London Press Exchange’s new building close to Trafalgar Square, London. NOVEMBER: Dalwood agrees that on architectural commissions he should give Gimpel Fils 5% and 10% for those secured through them. They advise him to ‘insist on having the right to reproduce three copies for your benefit. Otherwise if the architects insist on having a unique piece, you should treble the price.’ [Gimpel Fils files]. DECEMBER: Though he has twenty-five pieces in the studio, of which about eight are reliefs, Dalwood says he would like to postpone the exhibition that Gimpel Fils are planning for March as he has five large commissions in hand. He thinks Herbert Read would write a catalogue introduction. DECEMBER: Maurice de Sausmarez, recently appointed as Head of Fine Art at Hornsey College of Art, London, wants Dalwood to join him there in summer 1959. 18 DECEMBER: Gregory Fellowship extended to 30 September 1959.
FROM 1 JANUARY: Dalwood teaching three whole days a week at Leeds College of Art. MAY : he visits Antwerp for the opening of the sculpture biennale at Middelheimpark.
Mary Dalwood has a research scholarship at the University of Leeds. SEPTEMBER: Gimpel Fils give Dalwood’s name to architect John Morton, who wants a screen for the new Ionian Bank in the City of London. 30 SEPTEMBER: at the end of his Gregory Fellowship Dalwood stays in the house and studio in Leeds as his successor Austin Wright does not need it. I7 NOVEMBER: Large Object 1959 wins First Prize for sculpture at the second John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. The jury consisted of: Alan Bowness, Andre Chastel, Gabriel White, Hugh Scrutton. Dalwood gets considerable press coverage and establishes both his reputation and that of the sculpture which wins respect and notoriety from different quarters.
JANUARY: third one-person exhibition at Gimpel Fils. The first major display of his non-figurative sculpture and, following the success at the John Moores, it attracts considerable attention and critical acclaim. Read contributes a catalogue introduction. The Tate Gallery buy Large Object and another cast is sold to David Thompson, who presents it to the Museum of Modern Art, New York the following year; Dalwood later criticises them for displaying it badly and allowing it to deteriorate in their sculpture garden. A Miss Fennon, an interior decorator with a hotel chain, buys four casts each of Casket and Double Casket. FEBRUARY: Dalwood takes a new studio at the former Carr Mills, Buslingthorpe Lane, close to Leeds University, in order to finish his commission for the University of Liverpool as the ceiling of his University Road studio is too low. Until April he is very busy completing the commission. E.M.Arnold Ltd of Tadcaster, Yorkshire contact him about a possible commission for their printworks in Leeds. MAY: Dalwood discusses sculpture for the BBC’s ‘Modern Art’ series. JUNE: he wins a commission for a large aluminium relief for Bodington Halls of Residence, University of Leeds from architects Jones & Stock. To fulfil it he borrows a hangar at Yeadon Aerodrome in which to work and employs ex-students David Seeger and Tom Pemberton as assistants. He asks Brian Wall, who makes welded steel sculpture, to come from St Ives to help.
FEBRUARY: Death of Dalwood’s father. FEBRUARY/MARCH: separated from his wife Mary Dalwood but they remain good friends throughout his life. He moves to London. He has a small basement flat and studio formerly occupied by Barbara Hepworth, at 75a Ladbroke Grove. Lack of space restricts his productivity. He continues to teach occasionally at a number of as he has since the end of the Gregory Fellowship. These include, at various times, Leeds College of Art, Bristol School of Art, Maidstone College of Art, Hornsey College of Art as well as the Royal College of Art. He is appointed to the Fine Art Panel of the Coldstream Committee, reviewing art colleges’ applications for Dip A.D. status. Dalwood is also appointed to the Faculty of the British School in Rome.
In London in the early 1960s he is one of a group of artists, including fellow sculptors Bryan Kneale and Elizabeth Frink, who would meet at the Chelsea Arts Club and the nearby pubs of Finch’s and The Queen’s Elm. DECEMBER: Dalwood’s work is shown and sold 1by Elia Ajolfi in Bergamo.
Dalwood is friendly with the American painter Larry Rivers, who marries a woman from Bristol. With Rivers and a group of others he and Caroline go to Paris for Yves Klein’s wedding. A week-end of high society parties contrasts with terrorist attacks in the city and the fear of an imminent military coup as a result of the situation in Algeria and it leaves an impression on Dalwood. 1 MAY: he is invited by the Ministry of Education 14 compete for a commission for the courtyard of a College of Further Education. MAY-OCTOBER: Dalwood exhibits in the British Pavilion at the Venice Biennale alongside Ceri Richards and Robert Adams. He wins the David Bright Award, an American prize for a sculptor under thirty-five. The exhibition tours to Yugoslavia and Israel. MAY-JUNE: he and Caroline Gaunt travel by Jeep to Venice, where they are joined by several friends including Larry Rivers and Trevor Bell. Afterwards they carry on to Yugoslavia and Greece. JUNE: Dalwood is contacted by the collector Stanley J. Seeger who considers his work for his garden in Frenchtown, New Jersey. DECEMBER-JANUARY 1963: he participates in Art Foundation-Educational Projects Winter School at the Byam Shaw School of Art, London with Anton Ehrenzweig, Terry Frost, Norbert Lynton, Maurice de Sausmarez and Harry Thubron.
2 April: Dalwood is divorced from Mary. SUMMER: with Caroline Gaunt and collecting his two daughters from Paris where they have spent the year with their mother, and followed by a group of friends, he drives to Portoroz in northern Yugoslavia for the Forma Viva: III International Symposium of Sculptors. They visit Venice on the way and have dinner with Cesar. In Portoroz, with the assistance of a local craftsman and working from a maquette prepared in Britain, Dalwood carves a large sculpture in Istrian marble from a nearby quarry. He is one of ten sculptors working at the site and there are a further ten woodcarvers inland, at Kostanjevica. The works are left in situ to form a huge sculpture park. He is made a fellow of the Royal Society of
British Sculptors (resigned 1970). NOVEMBER: Dalwood marries Phoebe Caroline
Gaunt at Barkston Ash registry office, Yorks. Dalwood is involved in plans to establish an Art Foundation in London, which will house studios, a school and an exhibition space. Bernard Bertschinger is the driving force, with Anton Ehrenzweig, Harry Thubron and Dalwood. They consider a site opposite the Victoria & Albert Museum but are offered a large warehouse in Covent Garden. The proposed trustees are Willem Sandberg (director, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam), Lilian Somerville (British Council), Patrick Heron, William Scott, Herbert Read, Barbara Hepworth, Harry Thubron, Philip James (Arts Council), Bertschinger and William Coldstream. The visiting teaching staff, headed by Thubron, will include Dalwood, Scott, Frost, Heron, Davie. The plan is never realised. DECEMBER: Dalwood teaches on Art Foundation Winter School in Leeds along with Harry Thubron, Eric Atkinson, Trevor Bell and Herbert Read? Winter School at Goldsmiths’ College, London with Heron, Frost, Lynton and Ehrenzweig. During 1963 Dalwood is appointed to the governing body of the West of England College of Art.
JANUARY: Dalwood has a one-person exhibition in Bristol. EARLY 1964: he and Caroline move to 223a Randolph Avenue, Maida Vale, west London, which has a large studio and in June their first son, William, is born. SEPTEMBER: Dalwood’s exhibition at Gimpel Fils reveals a much greater use of colour and works with a more direct political significance. Included at the last minute are a number of more complex pieces and some enamelled plaques which Dalwood describes as ‘bullet-proof art’. SEPTEMBER: he goes to the University of Illinois, at Urbana near Champaign, as Visiting Professor; Caroline and William join him in October and he has his car – a Morgan 4 + 4 – shipped out. He travels around America in it, attracting attention and gaining a night in jail for speeding. He sees a review of his Gimpel Fils exhibition in the New York Times & Tribune. Dalwood makes little work in Illinois, as he is anxious to see the country and he lacks casting facilities. However, one work was left at the university according to his contract. He experiments with new materials, notably plastics, and practices, including assemblage. OCTOBER he makes his first visit to Chicago and plans another. He visits New York for ten days, where he stays in the Chelsea Hotel with Larry Rivers, who introduces him to Claes Oldenburg. NOVEMBER: Dalwood gets a studio on the Champaign-Urbana campus. DECEMBER: the Dalwoods travel to San Francisco and Los Angeles for Christmas. The artist’s attention had been drawn to the work of West Coast artists by a colleague at Illinois, Roger Jacobson of the San Francisco Institute of Art, in whose work Dalwood sees parallel interests to his own. In California he is impressed by the work of several sculptors, notably William Geis and Robert Hudson, both associated with the ‘Funk’ movement.
JANUARY: Dalwood visits Palm Beach, Florida and stays with the Florsheims, owners of a chain of shoe stores and collectors, to whom he is introduced by the Gimpels. He visits Louisiana for the second time and Houston. FEBRUARY: he embarks on a lecture tour of America talking on the theme, ‘British Sculpture & American; Some Comparisons’. His records list the following venues: Washington University, St Louis; National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.; Albright Museum, Buffalo; Maryland Institute, Baltimore; Eastern University, Illinois; University of Illinois; N.Y. University, New York. On the way he visits Niagara Falls and, during March, revisits Chicago before finishing in New York at Easter. JUNE: the Dalwood family returns to Britain on a cargo boat from Montreal to Manchester. He plans not to teach for a year or so, unless offered one day a week by the Royal College. He tells Gimpel Fils that he has learnt a lot of technical things in America and plans ‘to use fibre-glass a good deal in my work’. AUGUST: Midland Group, Nottingham want to stage a Dalwood exhibition. From 1965 Dalwood was an external examiner for the Dip A.D. course at a number of institutions: Portsmouth College of Art, Newport College of Art, Cardiff College of Art, Manchester College, of Art, Wolverhampton College of Art. NOVEMBER: completion of Crucifixion with St Catherine for a church in Woodthorpe, Sheffield which was originally commissioned in 1956.
During the year he is invited to give a lecture at St Martin’s School of Art, where a group of formalist sculptors has recently become established under the tutelage of Anthony Caro. His title is ‘One Way Best-ism in Art’. JANUARY: lecture: ‘Rodin and the Modern Movement’. FEBRUARY: Dalwood visits USA. He stays with John and Gaby Jones in New York, with Harry Thubron in Champaign, Ill. and visits the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, Baltimore and St Louis. MAY: a major change in his work is revealed at the Battersea Park Open Air exhibition, where he shows Mirage. JUNE: birth of second son, Samuel. JULY: Royal Opera House show an interest in photographs of Dalwood’s work and promise to consider him for future productions. Appointed Head of Sculpture Hornsey College of Art, north London. In later years he employs as occasional lecturers a group of artists for whom he is seen as a dominant figure, including Ken Draper, Robert Mason, Martin Naylor, Richard Oginz, Michael Kenny, Michael Tyzack, John Loker; they meet most often in the Prince of Wales pub in Notting Hill Gate, then a highly fashionable area for artists. DECEMBER: Dalwood is invited by the Welsh Arts Council to have a one-person touring exhibition in Wales.
1 APRIL: he attends Scotland’s first conference on public sculpture, Dunfermline. JUNE: his exhibition at Gimpel Fils consists of 1works that are in stark contrast to the last show three years earlier. Ranging from nine feet to a few inches and in polished metal and vacuum formed plastic, they reveal his increasing fascination with architecture. JULY-AUGUST: Dalwood participates in Toronto International Sculpture Symposium, where he is one of a group of artists making outdoor sculptures in the city’s High Park which will remain in situ. His piece is made up of tall stainless steel tubes. He is joined later by Caroline, William and Sam, who travel by boat along with crates of sculpture. SEPTEMBER: Dalwood is Visiting Professor at the University of Wisconsin at Madison (until July 1968). He has to teach a graduate class once a week and has a good studio on campus. Minimalism is the pervasive aesthetic. He acquires a pipe bender and an electric hack saw so that he can produce metal forms of standard length and shape. He is in Madison during the major student unrest but avoids involvement.
FEBRUARY: Dalwood visits New York for the opening night of his friend, Peter Nichol’s play. He negotiates a big commission for Detroit and is arranging for an exhibition there and in Toronto. JULY: though he has been invited to stay at Wisconsin as head of sculpture, Dalwood leaves the professorship early in order to participate in at Sculpture Symposium at Horice, Czechoslovakia in August. He travels there with Caroline and all four children. There he produces a stone carving in situ and, in addition, a wall plaque, probably in slate inlaid with lead, which he gives to a gallery in Prague when the Soviet invasion curtails the visit. He has to take his payment in the form of an antique clock. In his absence, Hornsey has been the focus of student unrest. Dalwood is dismissive of the students’ position, but visits other colleges (Leeds, Bristol and Cardiff) to interview student leaders in an attempt to understand their grievances. He is working on designs for monumental entrance gates for the new University of Libya at Benghazi for the architect James Cubitt.
MAY: Dalwood’s financial problems force him to ask Gimpel Fils to pay his foundry bills. Among recent works are five ‘light pictures’. NOVEMBER: he wins a competition for a commission for a large sculpture for Birmingham College of Art and Crafts. Lecture: ‘The Artist’s Role’.
Around this time Dalwood works with his brother-in-law, Mike O’Connor, on a scheme to get artists working in industrial environments. During the year, through the mediation of Norbert Lynton, he discusses with the chairman of Guardian Newspapers a proposed sculpture for their Manchester headquarters; in the event another artist is brought in to fulfil the commission. JANUARY: Dalwood wins competition for a commission for a monumental sculpture for Wolverhampton Polytechnic. JUNE/JULY: he travels to Detroit to install his sculpture at the Southlands Shopping Mall and to arrange future exhibitions. While there he lectures at the University of Wisconsin and visits New York. He proposes a book on sculpture based on three of his lectures; Oxford University Press turn it down.
Beginning of the year: Dalwood makes an extensive trip to Canada (London, Ontario; Guelph; Nova Scotia) and the USA (Chicago, Dallas, Houston, New Orleans, Washington D.C., New York). He gives lectures and seminars at art colleges (including London, Guelph, Rice, Corcoran) and visits galleries and collectors. AUGUST: he asks if Gimpel Fils will help with the production cost for his large work for the Royal Academy’s British Sculptors ’72. To off-set the expense he proposes to make two versions of the maquette for them to show during the exhibition SEPTEMBER: he visits France and travels to the Ile de Re. At this time Dalwood is working on a book on landscape and garden design and he is increasingly interested in man’s interventions into the land and the concept of the landscape as an enormous sculpture. He discusses the scheme with Theo Crosby of Pentagram Design and with publishers but the project, which ranges from eighteenth- century English landscape gardens and Japanese rock gardens to the salt mines of Australia, South American pictograms and recent Earth Art, is considered too broad. He produces a proposal for a volume entitled ‘Landscape of the Mind’, to contain 15,000 words by him and illustrations by Robert Bates and Michael Tyzack.
SEPTEMBER: proposes a television programme entitled ‘St Ives Was Then’, examining the town’s artistic history between 1946 and 1951.
JANUARY-FEBRUARY: Dalwood is a visiting lecturer at the University of Florida, Gainesville. He stays with the British painter Robert Mason who is also teaching there. In the first part of the year Dalwood shares a large studio, the old gym of a converted school building, at 71 Stepney Green, East London with Michael Tyzack. JUNE: Dalwood drafts various proposals for television features: a revision of his idea for a programme on St Ives; another studying ‘The Bed’; ‘Is It Art?’, an examination of aesthetics in everyday environments – shop design, house decoration, gardens; and a fourth looking at the rise of performance art and the work of British artists such as Gilbert and George and Stuart Brisley. JULY: he is awarded a two-month Winston Churchill Fellowship to study Japanese gardens. He visits India, Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Penghu Island in the Straits of Formosa but most of his time is spent in Japan where he especially visits the Shinto and Zen gardens in Kyoto. He returns in September. On his return, Dalwood takes the whole studio space at Stepney Green. During the year a commissioned sculpture is installed at the Business Statistics Office, Newport.
Dalwood becomes chair of the Arts Council Serpentine Gallery Committee, on which he sat from 1972-4. He works with architect Tom Hancock on a large relief proposed for the entrance of the Kensington Hilton Hotel, London. It is never made. SUMMER: Dalwood travels to Milan and Venice. NOVEMBER: he bids for a commission for a sculpture for the entrance to the Queen’s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham. Dalwood proposes a competition, ‘Art into Landscape’, which aims to regain for community use areas of wasteland and demolition sites. It is organised by the Arts Council, the Royal Institution of British Architects, the Institute of Landscape Architects and The Sunday Times. Entries are submitted in April and the winning designs are exhibited at the Serpentine Gallery in September. Dalwood is increasingly unhappy at Hornsey, as the school’s incorporation into Middlesex Polytechnic reduces the art department’s autonomy. There is also a suggestion that the school questioned his use of their facilities. He accepts the post of Head of Sculpture at Central School of Art and Design, London. Though he remains there until his death it is not a success as what he sees as the increasingly bureaucratic nature of art schools causes tension. He gives a lecture at the Hatton Gallery, University of Newcastle on Tyne (where his daughter Alison is studying fine art) the opening of the exhibition: 11 Sculptors One Decade, Sculpture bought by Hubert Dalwood for the Arts Council Collection.
OCTOBER: he visits Egypt for the opening of his exhibition in Cairo. He travels to Alexandria and Luxor and visit an Egyptian sculptor. During the year a commissioned sculpture is installed at the Haymarket Shopping Centre, Leicester.
SPRING: Dalwood visits Beirut for the opening of his exhibition. He meets the architect Tony Irving with whom he will collaborate on a number of projects in the Middle East. He makes two subsequent trips, travelling through northern and southern Lebanon and to Syria, where he visits Homs, Aleppo, Palmyra and Damascus.
LATE 1975/EARLY 1976: Dalwood shows first signs of illness during a visit to Leeds. MARCH: first diagnosed with systemic sclerosis, a little-known disease which prevents cell regeneration. 30 APRIL: elected Associate of the Royal Academy. JULY visits Newcastle to attend his younger daughter’s graduation ceremony and returns to Leeds with Mary, Katherine and Alison. AUGUST: on holiday in the Dordogne with John Jones and family and daughter Katherine Dalwood is unusually quiet. LATE OCTOBER: he collapses at wok at St Martin’s and is hospitalised at St Bartholomew’s, London. His daughter Katherine visits and returns to Leeds. His daughter Alison visits on 1 November and is told by the hospital doctors that no treatment can be given and that he is near death. He lapses in and out of consciousness.
Early morning 2 NOVEMBER: Dalwood dies of systemic sclerosis; he is cremated at Golders Green (5 Nov.) and a memorial service is held later at St James’s, Piccadilly(n Dec.).
At the time of his death Dalwood’s plan for the future is to design large gardens, parks and buildings while continuing to make small viable sculptures in the studio. A number of Japanese galleries are showing interest in his work. Several projects in Saudi Arabia and neighbouring states are left unfinished.
Dalwood died intestate and the work he left is secured in his studio and a committee of friends is formed to protect it: Ken Draper, Bryan Kneale, Martin Naylor, Norman Stevens, Michael Kenny, Nigel Hall, Robert-Mason, William Pye, William Packer.
A large retrospective exhibition is organised by Catherine Lampert and Norbert Lynton, working for the Arts Council. It is shown at the Hayward Gallery and tours the country. The catalogue includes an extended essay by Lynton.